Anthocyanins as Natural Allopurinol Alternatives IntroductionReaders asked if cabbage is good for gout. Then I found that anthocyanins in red cabbage might help. So when more research convinced me that anthocyanin-rich food is good for gout sufferers. I created this list of the top 100 anthocyanin foods.
Now, you can read about my research. Or skip straight to 100 Anthocyanin Foods List for Gout.
Anthocyanins as Natural Allopurinol Alternatives PurposeThis is a preliminary draft of my list of the top 100 anthocyanin-rich foods. Unusually, my main purpose is to raise awareness and seek feedback. However, this list and associated research is a good starting point for you to discuss your anthocyanin intake with your professional health advisers. But you should be aware that I have not yet found any recommendations for anthocyanin consumption from rheumatologists. So before you make any significant eating pattern changes, you must get advice and baseline blood tests from your doctor.
Anthocyanins as Natural Allopurinol AlternativesDuring my research, I mostly saw suggestions about red cabbage. Often suggesting that anthocyanins in red cabbage were the probable reason for its uric acid lowering effect. But I've seen similar suggestions about cherries since I first started researching gout. So I didn't want to explore anthocyanins further without some proof.
Then I found an interesting study. That would've been more remarkable if researchers had found human test subjects. Instead of poisoning rats to create animal gout sufferers. But it has such important potential that I felt I had to publish my research to date. Later, I can improve my Anthocyanins Food List for Gout. Especially with more references to studies of anthocyanin's effects on uric acid.
For now, you can see from my featured image that the study explains how anthocyanins reduce uric acid production in the same way as allopurinol. But they also increase uric acid excretion in the same way as probenecid. As if that wasn't enough, the study describes an anti-inflammatory effect of anthocyanins. Now, I'm not suggesting this is an alternative to colchicine. Because I need to review more studies to get a complete picture.
However, I can't wait until I complete my research before sharing some anthocyanin food sources with you. So I've produced a preliminary list of the top 100 anthocyanin foods. And I really need your feedback to improve it as a practical resource for gout sufferers. As you will see in my closing notes.
100 Anthocyanin Foods List for GoutI derived data for this table from USDA's Expanded Flavonoid Database.
|Food (100g)||Total (mg)||Cyanidin||Petunidin||Delphinidin||Malvidin||Pelargonidin||Peonidin|
|Cranberries, dried, sweetened||324.43||0.60||0.10||2.84||0.02||320.87|
|Cabbage, red, raw||209.95||209.83||0.10||0.02|
|Currants, zante, dried||191.32||167.46||23.45||0.41|
|Alcoholic beverage, wine, dessert, sweet||109.29||6.63||3.90||94.83||3.93|
|Blueberries, frozen, unsweetened||94.25||4.36||18.16||21.59||49.65||0.02||0.47|
|Blueberries, frozen, sweetened||86.05||3.98||16.58||19.71||45.33||0.02||0.43|
|Blackberry juice, canned||77.26||76.75||0.35||0.16|
|Blueberries, canned, light syrup, drained||76.35||3.95||14.74||16.57||31.60||9.49|
|Blueberries, canned, heavy syrup, solids and liquids||76.35||3.95||14.74||16.57||31.60||9.49|
|Boysenberries, frozen, unsweetened||63.39||62.97||0.29||0.13|
|Blackberries, frozen, unsweetened||63.39||62.97||0.29||0.13|
|Babyfood, fruit, apple and blueberry, junior||61.89||3.97||11.79||13.26||25.28||7.59|
|Eggplant, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt||58.31||58.31|
|Cranberry juice, unsweetened||53.93||24.07||3.98||0.23||0.16||25.49|
|Cereals ready-to-eat, POST Selects Cranberry Almond Crunch||48.84||0.26||0.02||0.43||48.13|
|Beans, black, mature seeds, raw||48.46||1.63||15.41||18.50||10.61||0.95||1.36|
|Grape juice cocktail, frozen concentrate, undiluted, with added ascorbic acid||47.38||2.63||2.99||5.67||32.90||0.06||3.13|
|Pie fillings, blueberry, canned||47.18||2.44||9.11||10.24||19.53||5.86|
|Blackberries, canned, heavy syrup, solids and liquids||45.32||45.03||0.20||0.09|
|Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS TOTAL, Cranberry Crunch||42.17||0.08||0.01||0.37||41.71|
|Babyfood, apple-cranberry juice||40.67||18.16||3.00||0.17||0.12||19.22|
|Cabbage, red, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt||39.38||39.22||0.16|
|Currants, red and white, raw||38.01||33.27||4.66||0.08|
|Cherries, sour, red, raw||33.44||32.57||0.87|
|Babyfood, dessert, blueberry yogurt, strained||32.67||1.69||6.31||7.09||13.52||4.06|
|Cherries, sweet, raw||31.98||30.21||0.27||1.50|
|Cranberry sauce, canned, sweetened||29.65||0.10||0.02||0.26||0.02||29.25|
|Grapes, red or green (European type, such as Thompson seedless), raw||24.02||0.58||0.98||1.14||19.50||0.01||1.81|
|Pie fillings, cherry, low calorie||23.87||23.25||0.62|
|Pie, blueberry, commercially prepared||23.56||1.09||4.54||5.40||12.41||0.12|
|Strawberries, frozen, unsweetened||20.80||1.27||0.12||0.02||0.01||19.32||0.06|
|Raspberries, frozen, red, sweetened||20.66||19.45||0.13||0.56||0.05||0.42||0.05|
|Raspberries, canned, red, heavy syrup pack, solids and liquids||20.66||19.45||0.13||0.56||0.05||0.42||0.05|
|Cherries, sour, red, canned, heavy syrup pack, solids and liquids||19.61||19.10||0.51|
|Cherries, sour, red, canned, water pack, solids and liquids (includes USDA commodity red tart cherries, canned)||19.61||19.10||0.51|
|Alcoholic beverage, wine, table, red||19.27||0.19||1.98||2.01||13.84||1.25|
|Jams and preserves||19.14||3.90||2.25||5.80||3.24||2.79||1.16|
|Cherries, sweet, frozen, sweetened||18.76||17.72||0.16||0.88|
|Beans, black turtle soup, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt||18.39||0.36||5.93||7.12||4.09||0.37||0.52|
|Cherries, sweet, canned, pitted, heavy syrup, drained||18.22||17.20||0.16||0.86|
|Cherries, sweet, canned, pitted, heavy syrup pack, solids and liquids||18.22||17.20||0.16||0.86|
|Cherries, sweet, canned, light syrup pack, solids and liquids||18.22||17.20||0.16||0.86|
|Cherries, sweet, canned, juice pack, solids and liquids||18.22||17.20||0.16||0.86|
|Cherries, sweet, canned, water pack, solids and liquids||18.22||17.20||0.16||0.86|
|Grape juice, canned or bottled, unsweetened, without added ascorbic acid||16.08||0.89||1.02||1.92||11.17||0.02||1.06|
|Grape juice, canned or bottled, unsweetened, with added ascorbic acid||16.08||0.89||1.02||1.92||11.17||0.02||1.06|
|Apples, dehydrated (low moisture), sulfured, uncooked||15.91||15.77||0.07||0.07|
|Muffins, blueberry, toaster-type, toasted||14.70||0.76||2.84||3.19||6.08||1.83|
|Muffins, blueberry, toaster-type||14.70||0.76||2.84||3.19||6.08||1.83|
|Babyfood, fruit, applesauce and cherries, junior||13.83||13.11||0.11||0.61|
|Strawberries, canned, heavy syrup pack, solids and liquids||13.78||0.86||0.05||0.16||0.01||12.67||0.03|
|Grape juice cocktail, frozen concentrate, diluted with 3 volume water, with added ascorbic acid||13.62||0.76||0.86||1.63||9.45||0.02||0.90|
|Cereals ready-to-eat, POST Blueberry Morning||12.49||0.65||2.41||2.71||5.17||1.55|
|Strawberries, frozen, sweetened, sliced||12.48||0.76||0.07||0.01||0.01||11.59||0.04|
|Strawberries, frozen, sweetened, whole||12.48||0.76||0.07||0.01||0.01||11.59||0.04|
|Peaches, dried, sulfured, uncooked||11.77||11.77|
|Yogurt parfait, lowfat, with fruit and granola||11.59||0.64||0.95||1.09||2.49||6.38||0.04|
|Cherries, sour, red, frozen, unsweetened||11.24||10.13||1.11|
|Alcoholic beverage, wine, table, all||9.66||0.09||0.99||1.00||6.95||0.63|
|Babyfood, fruit, applesauce and cherries, strained||9.49||9.04||0.07||0.38|
|Pears, dried, sulfured, uncooked||9.28||9.28|
|Pie, cherry, commercially prepared||8.64||8.16||0.07||0.41|
|Babyfood, fruit, apple and blueberry, strained||8.50||1.91||1.34||1.51||2.87||0.01||0.86|
|Toaster pastries, fruit (includes apple, blueberry, cherry, strawberry)||8.16||0.42||1.58||1.77||3.38||1.01|
|Beans, kidney, red, mature seeds, raw||8.03||1.86||4.82||1.35|
|Babyfood, cherry cobbler, junior||8.03||7.82||0.21|
|Yogurt, fruit variety, nonfat||7.61||0.41||1.27||1.43||2.70||0.99||0.81|
|Yogurt, fruit, lowfat, with low calorie sweetener, fortified with vitamin D||7.61||0.41||1.27||1.43||2.70||0.99||0.81|
|Yogurt, fruit variety, nonfat, fortified with vitamin D||7.61||0.41||1.27||1.43||2.70||0.99||0.81|
|Yogurt, fruit, low fat, 10 grams protein per 8 ounce, fortified with vitamin D||7.61||0.41||1.27||1.43||2.70||0.99||0.81|
|Yogurt, fruit, low fat, 9 grams protein per 8 ounce, fortified with vitamin D||7.61||0.41||1.27||1.43||2.70||0.99||0.81|
|Yogurt, fruit, lowfat, with low calorie sweetener||7.61||0.41||1.27||1.43||2.70||0.99||0.81|
|Yogurt, fruit, low fat, 10 grams protein per 8 ounce||7.61||0.41||1.27||1.43||2.70||0.99||0.81|
|Yogurt, fruit, low fat, 9 grams protein per 8 ounce||7.61||0.41||1.27||1.43||2.70||0.99||0.81|
|Apples, dried, sulfured, uncooked||7.58||7.44||0.02||0.02||0.10|
|Nuts, pistachio nuts, dry roasted, with salt added||7.49||7.49|
|Nuts, pistachio nuts, dry roasted, without salt added||7.48||7.48|
|Snacks, NUTRI-GRAIN FRUIT AND NUT BAR||7.32||3.41||0.52||0.03||0.02||3.34|
|Passion-fruit, (granadilla), purple, raw||7.28||1.19||0.26||0.30||5.06||0.47|
|Nuts, hazelnuts or filberts||6.71||6.71|
|Babyfood, juice, apple and cherry||5.41||5.27||0.14|
|Babyfood, dessert, cherry vanilla pudding, junior||5.37||5.19||0.01||0.17|
|Babyfood, dessert, cherry vanilla pudding, strained||5.37||5.19||0.01||0.17|
|Cereals ready-to-eat, KELLOGG, Berry RICE KRISPIES||4.83||0.30||0.02||0.06||4.44||0.01|
Anthocyanins for Your GoutI cannot emphasize enough that you must consult your doctor before significantly altering your eating patterns. Because if anthocyanins are powerful enough to lower your uric acid, they may also have the power to harm you. Which is why I strongly recommend that you precede all gout treatment with baseline blood tests for:
- Uric acid
- Liver Function Test (LFT)
- Kidney Function Test (KFT)
If you still have concerns about anthocyanins, you should discuss those concerns with your professional health advisers. However, if you want help to prepare for that discussion, please see the feedback section below.
As this is one of my research articles, I'm asking for your help. Because when I understand your situation, I can direct my research towards providing better resources for you. So I've extended my usual feedback notes below to explain this further. However, I do understand that most people do not want to discuss health concerns in public. In which case, you can find more information when you copy anthocyanins into the search box.
Leave Anthocyanins as Natural Allopurinol Alternatives to browse the Gout and Uric Acid Blog.
Anthocyanins as Natural Allopurinol Alternatives Feedback
Please share your thoughts about this page. To discuss other gout concerns, use the feedback link for the most relevant page. But if you just want to chat with other gout sufferers about anthocyanins, use GoutPal's Gout Discussions.
If you are asking a question, it's best to:
- Search for that question in Google Gout Search Engine first.
- Choose the most relevant result.
- Refer to that result as you ask your question.
Anthocyanins Research HelpFirstly, I'm not asking for your direct help with research. Rather, I'm asking for your views to help guide me on the features needed for future versions of this food list. However, if you did want to check some facts, I have identified over a hundred clinical trials that might help us understand safe doses. Also, they might contain other recorded effects on uric acid levels.
Anyway, I'd appreciate your thoughts about any aspects of this article. For example:
- Anthocyanins per 100 calories of food.
- And/or per typical serving size
- Categorize by food groups
- Add more data sources for foods not included in the USDA database. Especially notable as the anthocyanins used in this study derived from bilberries (European blueberries) and European black currant. Also, I noticed red radishes in another study.
- Include other flavonoids? Because we know other flavonoids can benefit gout sufferers. Significantly quercetin. So should these be included? Or are separate lists better?
- Add your ideas, wants, and needs.
I look forward to reading your anthocyanin ideas as we work towards improving anthocyanin information for gout sufferers.
Anthocyanins as Natural Allopurinol Alternatives References
- Qian, Xiaoyun, Xu Wang, Jing Luo, Yao Liu, Juan Pang, Hanyue Zhang, Zhongliang Xu, Jiewen Xie, Xinwei Jiang, and Wenhua Ling. "Hypouricemic and nephroprotective roles of anthocyanins in hyperuricemic mice." Food & Function 10, no. 2 (2019): 867-878.
- Haytowitz, D.B., USDA's Expanded Flavonoid Database for the Assessment of Dietary Intakes, Release 1.1-December 2015.